Pedro, Mixed Martial Artist (UFC) - 10th May 2017
Cutajar, Judo champion, mixed martial artist, - 29th January 2007
Severn, Ultimate Fighter, Professional Wrestler and Full Contact Trainer - 10th
209: Western Sydney's Tyson Pedro set for the big time - 24th February 2017
martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport. The mixture of traditional
martial arts has led to a wide variety of fighting techniques being used by modern
MMA competitors, including both striking and grappling.
mixed martial arts competition emerged in popular culture in 1993 with the founding
of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Based on finding the most effective martial
arts for real, unarmed combat situations, competitors of various arts were pitted
against one another with minimal rules or concern for safety. In the following
decade, MMA promoters adopted many additional rules aimed at increasing safety
for competitors and to promote mainstream acceptance of the sport.
Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity while promoters
have seen financial success to rival other combat sports, including boxing.
techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two
categories: striking techniques (such as kicks, knees and punches) and grappling
techniques (such as clinch holds, pinning holds, submission holds, sweeps, takedowns
and throws). As mixed martial arts has no international sanctioning body, rules
may vary between promotions. While the legality of some techniques (such as elbow
strikes, headbutts and spinal locks) may vary, there is a near universal ban on
techniques such as biting, strikes to the groin, eye-gouging, fish-hooking and
small joint manipulation.
in a match is normally gained either by the judges' decision after an allotted
amount of time has elapsed, a stoppage by the referee (for example if a competitor
can not defend himself intelligently) or the fight doctor (due to an injury),
a submission, by a competitor's cornerman throwing in the towel, or by knockout.
was thought that Olympic recognition would be forthcoming for the 2004 Summer
Olympics, held in Athens, under the banner of pankration. However, the International
Olympic Committee was unconvinced that Greece could handle the total number of
sports proposed. To placate the IOC, the organizers removed all new medal sports
and pankration was excluded.
of the earliest forms of widespread unarmed combat sports with minimal rules was
Greek pankration, which was introduced into the Olympic Games in 648 B.C. Even
as late as the Early Middle Ages, statues were put up in Rome and other cities
to honour remarkable pankratiasts.
events reportedly took place in the late 1800s when wrestlers representing a huge
range of fighting styles including various catch wrestling styles, Greco-Roman
wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches
throughout Europe. The first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in
modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan, then heavyweight world
boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, Greco-Roman wrestling champion
William Muldoon, and was slammed to the mat in two minutes. The next publicized
encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob
Fitzsimmons took on European Greco-Roman wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. Reportedly,
Roeber suffered a fractured cheekbone in this bout, but was able to get Fitzsimmons
down on the mat, where he applied an armlock and made the boxer submit. In 1936,
heavyweight boxing contender Kingfish Levinsky and veteran professional wrestler
Ray Steele competed in a mixed match, which Steele won in 35 seconds.
early example of mixed martial arts combat was the martial art of Bartitsu, founded
in London in 1899, which was the first martial art known to have combined Asian
and European fighting styles, and which saw MMA-style contests throughout England,
pitting European and Japanese champions against representatives of various European
style contests such as boxing vs. jujutsu were popular entertainment throughout
Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s. In Japan these
contests were known as Merikan, from the Japanese slang for "American [fighting]".
Merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules including points decision,
best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission.
wrestling died out after World War I and was reborn in two streams: "shoot",
in which the fighters actually competed, and "show," which evolved into
modern sports entertainment professional wrestling.
history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout
Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s; the Gracie family's
vale tudo martial arts tournaments in Brazil starting in the 1920s; and early
mixed martial arts matches hosted by Antonio Inoki in Japan in the 1970s. The
sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity in the United States
in 1993, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter Royce Gracie handily won the first Ultimate
Fighting Championship tournament, submitting three challengers in just five minutes,
sparking a revolution in the martial arts. Meanwhile in Japan the continued interest
in the sport resulted in the creation of the PRIDE Fighting Championships in 1997.
movement that led to the creation of the UFC and PRIDE was rooted in two interconnected
subcultures. First were the vale tudo events in Brazil, followed by the Japanese
shoot wrestling shows. Vale tudo began in the 1920s with the "Gracie challenge"
issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later on by descendants
of the Gracie family. In Japan in the 1970s, a series of mixed martial arts matches
were hosted by Antonio Inoki, inspiring the shoot-style movement in Japanese professional
wrestling, which eventually led to the formation of the first mixed martial arts
organizations, such as Shooto, which was formed in 1985. The concept of combining
the elements of multiple martial arts was pioneered and popularized by Bruce Lee
in the late 1960's to early 1970's. Lee believed that "the best fighter is
not a Boxer, Karate or Judo man. The best fighter is someone who can adapt to
any style." His innovative concepts were recognized in 2004 by UFC President
Dana White when he called Lee the "father of mixed martial arts."
United States Army began to sanction Mixed Martial arts when the US Army Combatives
School held the first annual All Army Combatives Championships in Nov 2005.
sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch
between then UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion
Tito Ortiz, rivaling the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing events of all
time, and helping the UFC's 2006 PPV gross surpass that of any promotion in PPV
history. In 2007, Zuffa LLC, the owners of the UFC MMA promotion, bought Japanese
rival MMA brand PRIDE, merging the contracted fighters under one promotion and
drawing comparisons to the consolidation that occurred in other sports, such as
the AFL-NFL Merger in American football. (CreditL