Media - Industry Terms
Analog technology refers to electronic transmission
accomplished by adding signals of varying frequency
or amplitude to carrier waves of a given frequency
of alternating electromagnetic current. Broadcast
and phone transmission have conventionally used analog
technology. An analog process, as a continuous wave,
rather than digitally in a binary form, produces standard
audiotape and videotape recordings.
Most streaming media files encoded for use on the
Windows Media platforms have an asf extension. This
is an actual audio/video file, as opposed to an ASX
Broadband Used to describe a network connection, which
supports a relatively high bitrate. Also used to describe
content, which takes advantage of a high bitrate connection.
Describes a situation, which occurs when a streaming
media player is saving portions of a streaming media
file to local storage for playback. Most streaming
media players buffer a small percentage of a streaming
media presentation before beginning to play it. Buffering
also may occur in the middle of a presentation, when
available bandwidth does not match the presentation's
The unit of information. A computational quantity
that can take on one of two values. The smallest unit
of storage sufficient to hold one bit. It is the answer
to a yes or no question or in terms of digital data
a 0 or a 1.
The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed
amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth
is usually expressed in bits per second or bytes per
second. For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed
in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).
When data is sent simultaneously to all stations on
Space allocated on a system's Random Access Memory
(RAM) where data is stored temporarily until it is
transferred to another part of the system. In streaming
applications, buffers store video or audio data until
there is enough information for the stream to be composed.
The speed at which data travels from one place to
another on a computer network, such as the Internet.
The reduction in the size of data in order to save
space or transmission time. Compression is performed
by a program, which uses an algorithm or formula to
determine how best to compress and decompress the
Digital video is the key to content when streaming
media. Digital video is an alternative way of storing
or distributing video. Digital video is usually converted
from an analog video source. A digital video signal
is represented in '1's and '0's, whereas an analog
video signal is represented by a fluctuating voltage
signal that is stored on magnetic tape. This difference
is similar to the difference between analog audio
and digital audio.
A hardware or software application used to compress
audio and video signals for the purposes of streaming.
Hypertext Mark-up Language. The formatting code used
to create web pages.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The protocol used to
distribute web pages. Some streaming media productions
are also sent to end-users via HTTP. (Kilobits per
second) - The rate at which data is sent over a communication
line. The typical household modem runs at 56.6 kpbs.
(Millions of bits per second) it is a measure of bandwidth.
A unit of information transfer rate. While an Ethernet
connection can run at 10 Mbps the average household
modem still runs at 56.6 kbps (kilobits per second)
MP3 is the MPEG audio layer 3 standard. Layer 3 is
one of three coding schemes (layer 1, layer 2 and
layer 3) for the compression of audio signals defined
by the MPEG committee. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio
coding and psychoacoustics compression to remove the
redundant parts of a sound signal. It also adds a
MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) that implements
a filter bank, increasing the frequency resolution
18 times higher than that of MPEG audio layer 2.
A file that minimally contains a URL that points a
media player toward a streaming media source. Generally
served using HTTP. May be a static file or generated
dynamically. Commonly use the filename suffixes RAM
(RealNetworks), ASX, WMX (Windows Media), and MOV
Used to describe a connection over a computer network,
which supports a relatively low bitrate. Also sometimes
used to describe content optimised for such connections.
Describes a file format for audio-only streaming media
technology released by RealNetworks, a leading streaming
media platform vendor.
Brand name describing file formats, server software,
player software, and protocols used by streaming media
systems from RealNetworks, a leading streaming media
Describes a file format for audio/video media released
by RealNetworks, a leading streaming media platform
Streaming media technology enables the real time or
on demand distribution of audio, video and multimedia
on the Internet. Streaming media is the simultaneous
transfer of digital media (video, voice and data)
so that it is received as a continuous real-time stream.
Streamed data is transmitted by a server application
and received and displayed in real-time by client
applications. These applications can start displaying
video or playing back audio as soon as enough data
has been received and stored in the receiving station's
buffer. A streamed file is simultaneously downloaded
and viewed, but leaves behind no physical file on
the viewer's machine.
The process through which a complete video file is
reduced in size. Video Compression algorithms take
advantage of the fact that there is minimal difference
from "one" frame to the next. The first
frame is encoded and then the sequence of differences
between frames. This is also known as "inter-frame"
coding or "3D coding".
Service Provider (VSP)
- Video Service Providers are analogous to Internet
Service Providers (ISPs) except that they specialize
in providing multimedia storage and streaming services
for Internet sites. In this scenario, when a company
offers streaming applications on their Internet site,
clicking on the video or multimedia file will transparently
connect users to the Video Service Provider that stores
and streams the content.
Describes video content that may be viewed by the
end-user from beginning to end, at any time.
The streaming media platform released by Microsoft.
Man Australia: Multimedia