symbols pay left to right in consecutive order (reels
1 to 3) only. Only the centre line counts towards
the Radioactive Cash Ladder. Wins are paid in accordance
with the Radioactive Cash Ladder. Highest win only
on the pay-line will be awarded.
the 'Start' button to spin the reels. If a win occurs
during normal play, you can collect the win by pressing
the 'COLLECT' button, or you can gamble the win by
pressing the 'HI/LO' button to play the 'HI/LO' gamble.
If you guess a 'HI/LO' gamble correctly, you will
progress up the Radioactive Cash Ladder by one. You
then have the option of collecting your win (COLLECT),
gambling your win (HI/LO) or exchanging your win for
The Super Hulk Feature Board (EXCHANGE). If you guess
a 'HI/LO' incorrectly, then you will lose the gamble,
and will return to normal play.
play, up to 4 'Nudges' may be awarded at anytime -
these give you the chance to make a winning line by
moving the reels!
'Nudges' are awarded, the 'NUDGE' button below each
reel will flash, and the number of nudges awarded
will flash in the Nudges Ladder. Press the 'NUDGE'
button to move the selected reel one position down.
Repeat on your selected reels until all nudges have
been used up. If a win occurs from a 'Nudge', all
remaining Nudges will be lost, and the win sequence
normal play, 'Holds' may be awarded at any time -
these give you the chance to hold in place the symbols
you want, and thus increase your chances of spinning
in a win! When holds are awarded, the 'HOLD' button
below each reel will flash.
the 'HOLD' button to hold the reel above it (you can
choose not to hold a reel - simply ignore the holds,
and press START to continue).
the 'START' button to spin the reels that are not
win you spin in through normal play will be displayed
on the Radioactive Cash Ladder. To climb the Radioactive
Cash Ladder successfully, you must guess whether or
not the next number The Hulk is holding will be higher
or lower than the current one. If you guess correctly,
you move up one rung of the Radioactive Cash Ladder.
you guess incorrectly, then you will lose the gamble,
and return to normal play.
can COLLECT your winnings at any time, or can EXCHANGE
to play the feature board. If you successfully gamble
up to the highest level on the Radioactive Cash Ladder,
you will automatically collect and win the jackpot
prize on the Radioactive Cash Ladder can be gambled
upon, by using the 'HI/LO' buttons. Select 'HI' or
'LO' if you think the next number shown by The Hulk
will be higher or lower than the current number shown.
If a successful gamble is achieved, you will climb
the Radioactive Cash Ladder by one position. If the
gamble is unsuccessful, then you will lose the gamble,
and you return to normal play. You can gamble 'HI'
or 'LO' until you decide to either COLLECT, EXCHANGE,
or you lose the gamble.
are 2 feature boards that you can play.
Hulk Feature Board
triggered when 3 'Radioactive Symbols' logos appear
anywhere, on separate reels in the reel window.
Super Hulk Feature Board
triggered when 3 'Radioactive Symbols' logos appear
on the pay-line. Press the 'Start' button and The
Hulk will determine the number of squares you will
be moved around the Feature Board you are on. Each
Square on the Board is unique and descriptions are
listed on the next page.
* Start Your starting Square
* X2 Multiplies your Radioactive Cash Ladder Value
* X3 Multiplies your Radioactive Cash Ladder Value
* X5 Multiplies your Radioactive Cash Ladder Value
* X10 Multiplies your Radioactive Cash Ladder Value
* 5 Adds ($/£)5 to your Cash Pot
* 10 Adds ($/£)10 to your Cash Pot
* 15 Adds ($/£)15 to your Cash Pot
* Add Feature Moves you one rung up the Radioactive
* Lucky Dip Plays the 'Lucky Dip' Ladder Feature
* Cash Attack Plays the 'Cash Attack' Ladder Feature
* Hi-Lo Plays the 'Hi-Lo' Ladder Feature
* Triple Test Tube Plays the 'Triple Test Tube' Ladder
* Turbo Cash Plays the 'Turbo Cash' Ladder Feature
* Boost Boosts you around the Feature Board to another
* Cash Boost Boost you up the Radioactive Cash Ladders
* Lucky Ladders Plays 'Lucky Ladders'
o Press the 'Stop' button to stop on the feature Ladder
and Play that
o Ladder Feature Game *
Safe Banks your Cash Pot total into the Safe Bank
* Extra Life Gives you an Extra Life
* Plus 1 Moves you one more square along the Feature
* Radioactive Symbol Collect three of these to upgrade
to The Super Hulk Feature Board
* ? Press Stop to trigger one of the four options
* Knockout End of the Feature Round, to lose your
* Jackpot Win the Jackpot!
Cash Pot shows the current amount of cash you could
win, if you were to press the COLLECT button. Note
that you must press COLLECT in order to bank the cash.
'Cash Pot' is comprised of:
* The current Radioactive Cash Ladder value (X by
any multipliers you have landed on).
* PLUS any Cash Value square you land on in The Super
Hulk Feature game.
on the 'Safe' Square during Feature Play transfers
the amount you have won in the Cash Pot' to the 'Safe
Bank'. This amount cannot be lost and will be awarded
when the feature game concludes. If a Ladder Feature
game is played and the amount won is less than the
amount in the ‘Safe Bank’, the ‘Safe
Bank’ is still won.
'Extra Life' is awarded when landing on this square.
Landing on 'Mere Mortal', losing a 'Yes/No' gamble
or losing a 'Hi/Lo' gamble will result in the loss
of the 'Extra Life' - you can then carry on until
you either lose a gamble, or decide to collect.
on the 'Radioactive Symbol' square lights up one 'Radioactive
Symbol' logo. If you light up 3 of these logos, you
will automatically gain entry to 'The Super Hulk Feature'
the 'Stop' button when landing on the '?' square to
choose one of the following 4 options:
whether you think the next number The Hulk holds will
be higher or lower then the current one. A correct
guess allows you to carry on around the board, and
an incorrect guess returns you to normal play.
the 'Stop' button to choose either 'Yes' or 'No'.
'Yes' will allow you to carry on around the board,
'No' returns you to normal play.
you to normal play.
you to 'The Super Hulk Feature'
that in 'The Super Hulk Feature', the 'Radioactive
Symbol' option is swapped for a 'Continue' option
- hit this and you continue with the game.
Radioactive Cash Ladder
win obtained, whether in normal play or on the feature
board, will be displayed on the Radioactive Cash Ladder.
Before your next spin, you can choose to collect the
amount lit on the Radioactive Cash Ladder. Alternatively,
when you are playing in either of the Feature Boards,
you can choose to exchange the amount lit for the
corresponding game next to it.
games that can be played include:
on the Squares to reveal symbols. Match 3 symbols,
and you win the corresponding amount for those symbols,
as shown in the pay-table.
Message Box at the top of the screen flashes cash
amounts continuously until you hit the STOP button.
Pressing the STOP button reveals a cash amount. Press
'STOP' when you think the largest cash amount is displayed.
this 3 times, and your prize is the sum of the 3 cash
amounts in the Message Box!
Hulk versus Abomination. Select either 'Hi' or 'Lo'
for The Hulk to punch Abomination. Abomination will
either block the punch, or will miss and will get
hit reveals a cash amount. You have 6 attempts to
hit Abomination. You win the total amount of cash
3 of 9 Test Tubes. Each Test Tub selected reveals
Radioactive Cash Ladder will begin to light up in
a random fashion. Simply press the 'Stop' button when
you think the light is nearest the top rung of the
ladder. The higher the light when stopped, the bigger
the cash reward!
get 5 free spins of the reels. During each spin, the
number of 'The Hulk' symbols you spin in are counted
up. This number is then multiplied by the Radioactive
Cash Ladder rung you were on when the feature started.
example… cash rung = ($/£)10, no. of 'The
Hulk' = 4, total won = ($/£)40). Hulk
harder you hit your opponent, the bigger your prize!
Press the 'Stop' button to stop the Hulk Smash Power
Bar at the highest level possible. A prize is awarded
for the strength of the Hulk Smash. The Hulk then
smashes a Tank and the people inside the Tank flee.
The total prize is the Hulk Smash Prize multiplied
by the number of people who flee the Tank. (For example…
Hulk Smash Prize = ($/£)10, Number of People
who fled the Tank = 8, total won = ($/£)80).
Hulk is a fictional character, a superhero that appears
in comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created
Lee and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared
in The Incredible Hulk #1 in May 1962. As one of the
most prolific and longstanding personas for the company,
Wizard magazine named the Hulk Marvel Comics' 7th
"Greatest Character of All Time" in 2008.
Hulk is cast as an emotional and impulsive alter ego
of the withdrawn and reserved physicist Dr. Bruce
Banner. The Hulk appears shortly after Banner was
accidentally exposed to the blast of a test detonation
of a gamma bomb he invented. Subsequently, Banner
will often involuntarily transform into the Hulk,
depicted as a giant, raging monster, leading to extreme
complications in Banner's life. In Hulk: The Incredible
Guide, Stan Lee revealed that the Hulk was a combination
of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Frankenstein.
the coloration of the character's skin varies during
the course of its publication history, the Hulk is
most often depicted as green. As the Hulk, Banner
is capable of immense feats of strength, which increases
with his feelings of rage and anger. Anger is a common
trigger of Banner's transformation. A common storyline
is the pursuit of both Banner and the Hulk by the
police or the armed forces, due to the destruction
Hulk character has since been depicted in various
other media, most notably by Lou Ferrigno as the Hulk
in a television series and three television movies,
by CGI in Hulk (2003), and in The Incredible Hulk
(2008), as well as in three animated series and various
Debut and first series
Hulk debuted in The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962),
by writer Stan Lee, penciller and co-plotter Jack
Kirby, and inker Paul Reinman. In the first issue,
the Hulk was grey. Writer and Marvel editor-in-chief
Lee had wanted a color that did not suggest any particular
ethnic group. Colorist Stan Goldberg, however, had
problems with the grey coloring, resulting in different
shades of grey, and even green, in the issue. Stan
Lee picked the uncommon color, green. From issue #2
(July 1962) on, Goldberg colored the big brute's skin
green. Green was used in retellings of the origin,
even to the point of reprints of the original story
being re-colored, for the next two decades. The Incredible
Hulk vol. 2, #302 (Dec. 1984), reintroduced the grey
Hulk in flashbacks set close to the origin story.
This was reaffirmed in vol. 2, #318 (April 1986),
which showed the Hulk was grey at the time of his
creation. Since then, reprints of the first issue
have displayed the original grey coloring.
original series was canceled after six issues, with
the finale cover-dated March 1963. Lee had written
each story, with Kirby penciling the first five issues
and Steve Ditko penciling and inking the sixth. The
character immediately guest-starred in Fantastic Four
#12 (March 1963), and months later became a founding
member of the Avengers appearing in just the first
two issues of that superhero team's eponymous series
(Sept. & Nov. 1963), and returning as an antagonist
in issues #3 and #5 (Jan. & May 1964). He then
guest-starred in The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July
this time, co-creator Jack Kirby received a letter
from a college dormitory stating the Hulk had been
chosen as its official mascot. Kirby and Lee realized
their character had found an audience in college-age
Tales to Astonish
year and a half after the series was canceled, the
Hulk became the backup feature in Tales to Astonish
in issue #60 (Oct. 1964). In the previous issue, he
appeared as the antagonist for Giant-Man, star of
the book. These new stories were initially scripted
by Lee and illustrated by the team of penciller Steve
Ditko and inker George Roussos. Other artists later
in this run included Jack Kirby from #68-84 (June
1965 - Oct. 1966), doing full pencils or, more often,
layouts for other artists; Gil Kane, credited as "Scott
Edwards", in #76 (Feb. 1966); Bill Everett (inking
Kirby in #78-84, April-Oct. 1966); and John Buscema.
Marie Severin finished out the Hulk’s run in
Tales to Astonish; beginning with issue #102 (Apr.
1968) the book was retitled The Incredible Hulk, and
ran until March 1999, when Marvel canceled the series,
and then restarted the title with a new issue #1.
run of stories introduced readers to recurring villains
such as the Leader. and the Abomination, another gamma-irradiated
being, but stronger than the Hulk; they would become
the Hulk's arch-nemeses. In issue #77 (March 1966),
the Hulk's identity became publicly known.
Incredible Hulk was published through the 1970s and
also made guest appearances in other titles. Writers
introduced Banner’s cousin Jennifer Walters,
the She-Hulk, who was featured in a title of her own.
Banner gave some of his blood to Walters in a transfusion,
and the gamma radiation affected her, but she maintained
most of her intellect. Banner’s guilt about
causing her change became another part of his character.
changed numerous times during the decade. At times,
the creative staff included Archie Goodwin, Chris
Claremont, and Tony Isabella, Len Wein handled many
of the stories through the 1970s, working first with
Herb Trimpe, then in 1975, with Sal Buscema, who was
the regular artist for 10 years. Harlan Ellison plotted
a story, scripted by Roy Thomas, for issue #140 (Jun
1971), "The Brute that Shouted Love at the Heart
of the Atom".
1977, Marvel (under its Curtis Magazines imprint)
launched a second title, The Rampaging Hulk, a black-and-white
comics magazine. The Hulk stories here were editorially
stated to be set between the end of his original,
short-lived solo title and the beginning of his feature
in Tales to Astonish. After nine issues, the magazine
was retitled The Hulk! and printed in full color.
Near the end of the magazine's run, it went back to
black-and-white. Back-up features included Bloodstone
during the Rampaging Hulk issues, and later Moon Knight
and Dominic Fortune.
Roger Stern, Bill Mantlo took over the writing with
issue #245 (March 1980). His Crossroads of Eternity
stories, which ran from issue #300 (Oct. 1984) to
#313 (Nov. 1985), explored the idea that Banner had
suffered child abuse. Greg Pak, a later writer on
The Incredible Hulk volume 2, called Mantlo's Crossroads
stories one of his biggest influences on approaching
the character. After five years, Mantlo and artist
Mike Mignola left the title for Alpha Flight, and
writer John Byrne worked on the series, followed briefly
by Al Milgrom, before new regular writer Peter David
became the writer of the series with issue #331 (May
1987), marking the start of a 12-year tenure. David's
run altered Banner's pre-Hulk characterization and
the nature of Banner and the Hulk's relationship.
David returned to the Stern and Mantlo abuse storylines,
expanding the damage caused, and depicting Banner
as suffering dissociative identity disorder (DID).
David's stories showed that Banner had serious mental
problems long before he became the Hulk. David revamped
his personality significantly, giving the Grey Hulk
the alias 'Joe Fixit', and setting him up as a morally
ambiguous Vegas enforcer and tough guy. David worked
with numerous artists over his run on the series,
including Dale Keown, Todd McFarlane, Gary Frank,
Liam Sharp, Terry Dodson, Mike Deodato, Jr., George
Pérez, and Adam Kubert.
issue #377 (Jan 1991), David revamped the Hulk again,
using a storyline involving hypnosis to have the splintered
personalities of Banner and Hulk synthesize into a
new Hulk who has the vast power of the Savage Hulk,
the cunning of the Grey Hulk, and the intelligence
of Bruce Banner.
the 1993 Future Imperfect miniseries, writer David
and penciller George Pérez introduced readers
to the Hulk of a dystopian future. Calling himself
the Maestro, the Hulk rules over a world where most
of the heroes have been killed, and only Rick Jones
and a small band of rebels fight against The Maestro’s
rule. Although The Maestro seemed to be destroyed
by the end, he returned in The Incredible Hulk #460
(Jan 1998), also written by David.
1998, David followed editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion
to kill Betty Ross. In the introduction to the Hulk
trade paperback Beauty and the Behemoth, David said
that his wife had recently left him, providing inspiration
for the storyline. Marvel executives used Ross' death
as an opportunity to push the idea of bringing back
the Savage Hulk. David disagreed, leading to his parting
ways with Marvel. His last issue of Hulk was #467
(Aug 1998), his 137th.
in 1998, Marvel relaunched The Rampaging Hulk, this
time as a standard comic book rather than as a comics
David's departure, Joe Casey took over as writer though
the series' relaunch after issue #474 (March 1999).
Hulk vol. 2 began immediately the following month,
scripted by John Byrne and penciled by Ron Garney.
Byrne departed before the first year was over, citing
creative differences. Erik Larsen and Jerry Ordway
briefly filled scripting duties in his place, and
the title returned to The Incredible Hulk vol. 3 with
the arrival of Paul Jenkins in issue #12 (March 2000).
wrote a story arc in which Banner and the three Hulks
(Savage Hulk, Grey Hulk, and the Merged Hulk, now
considered a separate personality and referred to
as the Professor) are able to mentally interact with
one another, each personality taking over their shared
body. During this, the four personalities (including
Banner) confront yet another submerged Hulk, a sadistic
Hulk intent on attacking the world for revenge. Jenkins
also created John Ryker in issue #14 (May 2000), a
ruthless military general in charge of the original
gamma bomb test responsible for the Hulk's creation,
and who plans to create similar creatures. Ryker's
actions briefly result in Banner becoming the sadistic
Hulk before the four other personae subdue the beast.
Jones followed as the series' writer, and his run
features Banner using yoga to take control of the
Hulk while he is pursued by a secret conspiracy and
aided by the mysterious Mr. Blue. Jones appended his
43-issue Incredible Hulk run with the limited series
Hulk/Thing: Hard Knocks #1-4 (Nov. 2004 - Feb. 2005)
, which Marvel published after putting the ongoing
series on hiatus.
David, who had initially signed a contract for the
six-issue Tempest Fugit limited series, returned as
writer when it was decided to make the story, now
only five parts, part of the ongoing series instead.
David contracted to complete a year on the title.
Tempest Fugit revealed that Nightmare has manipulated
the Hulk for years, tormenting him in various ways
for "inconveniences" that the Hulk had caused
him, including the sadistic Hulk Jenkins had introduced.
After a four-part tie-in to the House of M crossover
and a one-issue epilogue, David left the series once
more, citing the need to do non-Hulk work for his
Planet Hulk and World War Hulk
the 2006 crossover storyline "Planet Hulk"
by writer Greg Pak, a secret group of superhero leaders,
the Illuminati, consider the Hulk an unacceptable
potential risk to Earth, and rocket him into space
to live a peaceful existence on a planet uninhabited
by intelligent life. After a trajectory malfunction,
the Hulk crashes on the violent planet Sakaar. Weakened
by his journey, he is captured and eventually becomes
a gladiator who scars the face of Sakaar's tyrannical
emperor. The Hulk becomes a rebel leader and later
usurps Sakaar's throne through combat with the red
king and his armies.
Hulk's rise to emperor, the vessel used to send Hulk
to Sakaar explodes, killing millions in Sakaar's capital,
including his pregnant queen, Caiera. The damage to
the tectonic plates destroys the planet and kills
most of its population.
Hulk, enraged, returns to Earth with the remnants
of Sakaar's citizens, and his allies, the Warbound,
seeking retribution against the Illuminati. After
laying siege to Manhattan, New York City, the Hulk
learns one of his allies was responsible for the explosion.
He reverts to his Bruce Banner form and is taken into
Retitling and new Hulk series
of #113 (Feb. 2008), the series was retitled The Incredible
Hercules, still written by Greg Pak but starring the
mythological demigod Hercules and teenage genius Amadeus
also launched a new volume of Hulk, written by Jeph
Loeb and drawn by Ed McGuiness. The series opens with
an investigation into the appearance of a new, red
Hulk, and reveals that Bruce Banner is no longer comatose,
and is imprisoned by the U.S. military until he transforms
and escapes and confronts the Red Hulk.
core of the Hulk, Bruce Banner has been portrayed
differently by different writers, but common themes
persist. Banner is a genius but emotionally withdrawn
in most fashions. Banner designed the gamma bomb which
causes his affliction, and the ironic twist of his
self-inflicted fate has been one of the most persistent
common themes. Arie Kaplan describes the character
thus: “Bruce Banner lives in a constant state
of panic, always wary that the monster inside him
will erupt, and therefore he can’t form meaningful
bonds with anyone.”
the Hulk's published history, writers have continued
to frame Bruce Banner in these themes. Under different
writers, his fractured personality led to transformations
into different versions of the Hulk. These transformations
are usually involuntary, and often writers have tied
the transformation to emotional triggers, such as
rage and fear. As the series has progressed, different
writers have adapted the Hulk, changing Hulk's personality
to reflect changes in Banner's physiology or psyche.
Writers have also refined and changed some aspects
of Banner's personality, showing him as emotionally
repressed, but capable of deep love for Betty Ross,
and for solving problems posed to him. Under the writing
of Paul Jenkins, Banner was shown to be a capable
fugitive, applying deductive reasoning and observation
to figure out the events transpiring around him. On
the occasions that Banner has controlled the Hulk's
body, he has applied principles of physics to problems
and challenges and used deductive reasoning.
the experimental detonation of a gamma bomb, scientist
Bruce Banner rushes to save a teenager who has driven
onto the testing field. Pushing the teen, Rick Jones,
into a trench, Banner himself is caught in the blast,
absorbing massive amounts of radiation. He awakens
later in an infirmary, seeming relatively unscathed,
but that night transforms into a lumbering grey form
that breaks through the wall and escapes. A soldier
in the ensuing search party dubs the otherwise unidentified
creature a "hulk".
original version of the Hulk was often shown as simple
and quick to anger. His first transformations were
triggered by sundown, and his return to Banner by
dawn. However, in Incredible Hulk #4, Banner started
using a Gamma ray device to transform at will. In
more recent Hulk stories, emotions trigger the change.
Although grey in his debut, difficulties for the printer
led to a change in his color to green. In the origin
tale, the Hulk divorces his identity from Banner’s,
decrying Banner as "that puny weakling in the
picture". From his earliest stories, the Hulk
has been concerned with finding sanctuary and quiet,
and often is shown reacting emotionally to situations
quickly. Grest and Weinberg call Hulk the "...dark,
primordial side of [Banner's] psyche." Even in
the earliest appearances, Hulk spoke in the third
person. The Hulk retains a modest intelligence, thinking
and talking in full sentences, and Lee even gives
the Hulk expository dialogue in issue six, allowing
readers to learn just what capabilities the Hulk has,
when the Hulk says, “But these muscles ain't
just for show! All I gotta do is spring up and just
keep goin'!" In Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades
of the World's Greatest Comics, Les Daniels addresses
the Hulk as an embodiment of cultural fears of radiation
and nuclear science. He quotes Jack Kirby thus: "As
long as we're experimenting with radioactivity there's
no telling what may happen, or how much our advancements
may cost us." Daniels continues "The Hulk
became Marvel's most disturbing embodiment of the
perils inherent in the atomic age."
usually a loner, the Hulk helped to form both the
Avengers and the Defenders. He was able to determine
that the changes were now triggered by emotional stress.
Four #12 (March 1963), featured the Hulk's first battle
with the Thing. Although many early Hulk stories involve
General Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross trying
to capture or destroy the Hulk, the main villain is
often, like Hulk, a radiation based character, like
the Gargoyle or the Leader, along with other foes
such as the Toad Men, or Asian warlord General Fang.
Ross' daughter, Betty, loves Banner and criticizes
her father for pursuing the Hulk. General Ross' right-hand
man, Major Glenn Talbot, also loves Betty and is torn
between pursuing the Hulk and trying to gain Betty's
love more honorably. Rick Jones serves as the Hulk's
friend and sidekick in these early tales.
Lee and others have compared The Hulk in these early
tales to the misunderstood creature Frankenstein's
Monster, a concept Lee had wanted to explore. Lee
remembers, "I had always loved the old movie
Frankenstein. And it seemed to me that the monster,
played by Boris Karloff, wasn't really a bad guy.
He was the good guy. He didn't want to hurt anybody.
It's just those idiots with torches kept running up
and down the mountains, chasing him and getting him
angry. And I thought, 'Wouldn't it be fun to create
a monster and make him the good guy?'"."
Wondering how to bring a new twist to Mary Shelley's
classic character as imagined by director James Whale
in 1931, Lee recalled another favorite from his childhood:
Robert Louis Stevenson's half-man/half-monster, depicted
in director Rouben Mamoulian's 1931 classic, Dr. Jekyll
and Mr. Hyde. "I combined Jekyll and Hyde with
Frankenstein," Lee tells, "and I got myself
the monster I wanted, who was really good, but nobody
knew it. He was also somebody who could change from
a normal man into a monster, and lo, a legend was
born." Lee also compared Hulk to the Golem of
Jewish myth. In The Science of Superheroes, Gresh
and Weinberg see the Hulk as a reaction to the Cold
War and the threat of nuclear attack, an interpretation
shared by Weinstein in Up, Up, and Oy Vey. Kaplan
calls Hulk ‘schizophrenic’. Jack Kirby
has also commented upon his influences in drawing
the character, recalling as inspiration the tale of
a mother who rescues her child who is trapped beneath
the 1970s, Hulk was shown as more prone to anger and
rage, and less talkative. Writers played with the
nature of his transformations, briefly giving Banner
control over the change, and the ability to maintain
control of his Hulk form.
stories began to involve other dimensions, and in
one, Hulk met the empress Jarella. Jarella used magic
to bring Banner’s intelligence to Hulk, and
came to love him, asking him to become her mate. Though
Hulk returned to Earth before he could become her
king, he would return to Jarella's kingdom of K'ai
Bill Mantlo took on writing duties, he led the character
into the arena of political commentary when Hulk traveled
to Tel Aviv, Israel, encountering both the violence
of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the Jewish
Israeli heroine Sabra. Soon after, Hulk encountered
the Arabian Knight, a Bedouin superhero.
Mantlo's writing, a mindless Hulk was sent to the
"Crossroads of Eternity", where Banner was
revealed to have suffered childhood traumas which
engendered Bruce's repressed rage.
come to terms with his issues, at least for a time,
Hulk and Banner physically separated under John Byrne's
writing. Separated from the Hulk by Doc Samson, Banner
was recruited by the U.S. government to create the
Hulkbusters, a government team dedicated to catching
Hulk. Banner and Ross married, but Byrne's change
in the character was reversed by Al Milgrom, who reunited
the two personas, and with issue #324, returned the
Hulk to his grey coloration after a second visit to
K'ai and his one time love, Jarella.
after returning to Earth, Hulk took on the identity
of "Joe Fixit," a shadowy behind the scenes
figure, working in Las Vegas on behalf of a casino
owner, Michael Berengetti. For months, Banner was
repressed in Hulk’s mind, but slowly began to
reappear. Hulk and Banner began to change back and
forth again at dusk and dawn, as the character initially
had, but this time, they worked together to advance
both their goals, using written notes as communication
as well as meeting on a mental plane to have conversations.
In The Incredible Hulk #333, the Leader describes
the Grey Hulk persona as strongest during the night
of the new moon and weakest during the full moon.
Eventually, the green Hulk began to re-emerge.
issue #377, David revamped the Hulk again. Doctor
Leonard Samson engages the Ringmaster's services to
hypnotize Bruce Banner and force him, the Savage Hulk
(Green Hulk) and Mr. Fixit (Grey Hulk) to confront
Banner's past abuse at the hands of his father, Brian
Banner. During the session, the three identities confront
a ‘Guilt Hulk’, which sadistically torments
the three with the abuse of Banner’s father.
Facing down this abuse, a new, larger and smarter
Hulk emerges and completely replaces the "human"
Bruce Banner and Hulk personae. This Hulk is a culmination
of the three aspects of Banner. He has the vast power
of the Savage Hulk, the cunning of the grey Hulk and
the intelligence of Bruce Banner.
David then introduces the Hulk to the Pantheon, a
secretive organization built around an extended family
of super-powered people. The family members, mostly
distant cousins to each other, had codenames based
in the mythos of the Trojan War, and were descendants
of the founder of the group, Agamemnon. When Agamemnon
leaves, he puts the Hulk in charge of the organization.
The storyline ends when it is revealed Agamemnon has
traded his offspring to an alien race to gain power.
The Hulk leads the Pantheon against the aliens, and
then moves on.
after, Hulk encounters a depraved version of himself
from the future, called Maestro. Thrown into the future,
Hulk finds himself allied with Rick Jones, now an
old man, in an effort to destroy the tyrant Maestro.
Unable to stop him in any other manner, Hulk uses
the time machine that brought him to the future to
send the Maestro back into the heart of the very Gamma
Bomb test that spawned the Hulk.
1998, David followed Editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion,
and wrote a storyline centering on the death of Betty
Ross. Betty has radiation poisoning, and desperate
to save her, General Thunderbolt Ross worked with
Banner, hoping to save her, but they fail, and Betty
dies. Following this, David left Marvel, following
a conflict about the direction of the series.
2006 Greg Pak introduced the Planet Hulk story arc,
which opened with a cabal of Earth’s superpowers,
called Illuminati, sending Hulk into deep space to
protect the Earth from his destructive rampages after
his involvement in the destruction of the Godseye
Satellite orbiting Earth. Hulk’s rocket, intended
for a desolate, empty planet, instead crashed onto
Sakaar. On Sakaar, Hulk rises from slave to king leading
a rebellion, and finds love with a wife, Caiera. Shortly
after, the rocket that brought Hulk to Sakaar malfunctions
and explodes, setting off the planet’s destruction.
Following the death of his wife, unborn child, and
hundreds of millions of innocents, Hulk gathers some
survivors and heads to Earth to exact revenge.
World War Hulk, Hulk along with an alien invasion
force, confronts and defeats the members of the Illuminati
and several of Marvel's major superhero teams, but
he later surrenders and is captured. Bruce Banner
is later seen in custody in a military facility where
General Ross and Doc Samson seek out Bruce Banner's
help with the emerging mystery of a new Red Hulk.
the character has been depicted as progressively more
muscular in the years since his debut.
and abilities of the Hulk
Hulk possesses the potential for near-limitless physical
strength depending directly on his emotional state,
particularly his anger. This has been reflected in
the repeated comment "The madder Hulk gets, the
stronger Hulk gets." His durability, healing,
and endurance also increase in relation to his temper.
The Hulk is also extremely resistant to most forms
of injury or damage, including physical, psychic,
environmental extremes, and is immune to disease and
poisons. His powerful legs allow him to leap into
lower Earth orbit or across continents. He also has
less commonly described powers, including abilities
allowing him to "home in" to his place of
origin in New Mexico, and to see and interact with
astral forms. He has been shown to have both regenerative
and adaptive healing abilities, including growing
tissues to allow him to breathe underwater, surviving
unprotected in space (yet still needing to breathe),
and when injured, healing from almost any wound within
seconds, including regenerating lost mass.
Bruce Banner (and the Merged/Professor Hulk), he is
considered one of the greatest minds on Earth. He
has developed expertise in the fields of biology,
chemistry, engineering, and physiology, and holds
a Ph.D. in nuclear physics. He possesses "a mind
so brilliant it cannot be measured on any known intelligence
The Science of Superheroes, Lois Grest and Robert
Weinberg examined Hulk’s powers, explaining
the scientific flaws in them. Most notably, they point
out that the level of gamma radiation Banner is exposed
to at the initial blast would induce radiation sickness
and kill him, or if not, create significant cancer
risks for Banner, because hard radiation strips cells
of their ability to function. They go on to offer
up an alternate origin, in which a Hulk might be created
by biological experimentation with adrenal glands
Q. Choi from LiveScience.com further explains that
unlike the Incredible Hulk, gamma rays are not green
- lying as they do beyond the visible spectrum, gamma
rays have no color at all that we can describe. He
also explains that gamma rays are so powerful (the
highest form of light and 10,000 times more powerful
than visible light) that they can even create matter-
a possible explanation for the increased mass that
Bruce Banner takes on during transformations. "Just
as the Incredible Hulk 'is the strongest one there
is,' as he says himself, so too are gamma ray bursts
the most powerful explosions known."
of Hulk supporting characters
the long publication history of the Hulk's adventures,
many recurring characters have featured prominently,
including his sidekick, Rick Jones, love interest
Betty Ross, and her father, the often adversarial
General Thunderbolt Ross.
in popular culture
Hulk in other media
Hulk character and the concepts behind it have been
raised to the level of iconic status by many within
and outside the comic book industry. In 2003 the Official
PlayStation magazine claimed the character had "stood
the test of time as a genuine icon of American pop
Hulk is often viewed as a reaction to war. As well
as being a reaction to the Cold War, the character
has been a cipher for the frustrations the Vietnam
War raised, and Ang Lee said that the Iraq War influenced
his direction. In the Michael Nyman edited edition
of The Guardian, Stefanie Diekmann explored Marvel
Comics' reaction to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Diekmann discussed The Hulk's appearance in the comic
book Heroes, claiming that his greater prominence,
alongside Captain America, aided in "stressing
the connection between anger and justified violence
without having to depict anything more than a well-known
and well-respected protagonist." Asked by Naomi
Klein if a new Cold War was imminent, Venezuelan president
Hugo Chávez cryptically replied: "The
geopolitics of the world will be like the Incredible
Hulk comics, where he tenses himself before the transformation."
Comic Book Nation, Wright alludes to Hulk's counterculture
status, referring to a 1965 Esquire magazine poll
amongst college students which "revealed that
student radicals ranked Spider-Man and the Hulk alongside
the likes of Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite
revolutionary icons." Wright goes on to cite
examples of his anti-authority symbol status. Two
of the most notable are "The Ballad of the Hulk"
by Jerry Jeff Walker, and the Rolling Stone cover
for 30 September 1971, a full color Herb Trimpe piece
commissioned for the magazine. The Hulk has been caricatured
in such animated television series as The Simpsons
Robot Chicken and Family Guy, and such sketch comedy
TV series as The Young Ones. The character is also
used a cultural reference point for someone displaying
anger or agitation. For example, in a 2008 Daily Mirror
review of an Eastenders episode, a character is described
as going "into Incredible Hulk mode, smashing
up his flat".
2003 Ang Lee directed Hulk film saw discussion of
the character's appeal to Asian-Americans. The Taiwanese
born Ang Lee commented on the "subcurrent of
repression" that underscored the character of
The Hulk, and how that mirrored his own experience:
"Growing up, my artistic leanings were always
repressed -- there was always pressure to do something
'useful,' like being a doctor." Jeff Yang, writing
for SF Gate extended this self identification to Asian-American
culture, arguing that "the passive-aggressive
streak runs deep among Asian Americans -- especially
those who have entered creative careers, often against
their parents' wishes."
Alternate versions of Hulk
the decades that Marvel has published Hulk, the company
has featured versions of the Hulk set in alternate
realities and histories, as well as other forms of
art, such as the manga style. (Credit: